Thursday, May 21, 2020
Introduction: Motivation can be defined as the inner power or drive that pushes one towards taking a particular course of action. It is much related to desire and ambition and they all work in tandem (Sasson, 2001). Motivation is influenced or caused by factors known as motivators. According to Sigmund Freud, we are compelled to act by unconscious forces within us, which he called our id (Hofstede, 1980). Motivators are either intrinsic (from within) or extrinsic (from without). Intrinsic motivational factors refer to motivators that come from within an individual. They are not influenced by external factors. This kind of motivation comes about as a result of self actualisation or fulfilling oneÃ¢â¬â¢s personal goals. Malone and LepperÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Maslow categorises human needs into five main areas shaped in a pyramid form, which are attained in a hierarchical manner. According to Maslow (1943), lower needs take precedence and must be fulfilled before higher level needs are activated. Thus, individuals progress from the bottom of the pyramid of needs to the top. MaslowÃ¢â¬â¢s work has been markedly criticised for its failure to take into account individual differences and cultures. Wahba and Bridgewell (1976) find very little evidence of the ranking of human needs as described by Maslow or even the existence of a definite hierarchy of needs at all. On another front, Hofstede (1984) criticises MaslowÃ¢â¬â¢s work for being ethnocentric as it is based on an experiment on a limited sample population in the U.S.A and cannot be extrapolated to describe a universal situation. AlderferÃ¢â¬â¢s Existence, Relatedness and Growth Theory: Alderfer (1969) distinguishes three categories of human needs that influence individual behaviours, which are Existence needs, Relatedness needs and Growth needs. His work can be seen as a more compact form of MaslowÃ¢â¬â¢s Hierarchy of needs. However, he contrasts with MaslowÃ¢â¬â¢s theory in that the human needs he identified are not in anyway attained hierarchically nor do all individuals have to go through the same process to attain their needs. Furthermore, Alderfer proposes the frustration-regressionShow MoreRelatedTheories Of Motivation And Motivation Theories1493 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesextent, needs of theories of motivation are still relevant to contemporary management practice. Theories of motivation are important as it helps managers to understand their employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ needs of motivations, and to motivate their employees to perform and excel better. There are several motivation theories; this essay will briefly explain six major theories of motivation and discuss thr ee of the theories in more detail. This essay will also explain the needs theories of motivation, and will focus onRead MoreMotivation Theory : Motivation And Motivation846 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesProfessor Jones Psychology April 28 2016 Motivation Theories Having motivation to do something is very important. Motivation plays a huge roll in everyoneÃ¢â¬â¢s life, even If someone has very little motivation. There are several types of motivation such as Instinct and drive motivation. These two motivations are quite similar, but different at the same time. I will compare and contrast both of these types of motivation and what I think about them. These motivations are very important to your life and canRead MoreMotivation Theories Of Motivation And Motivation Essay1020 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages Overview of Presentation What is motivation? Cognitive theories of Motivation Forms of Motivation Motivation Theories Profile of Motivational Problems How to Motivate Students What is Motivation? Many different theorists have tried to define what is meant by motiviation. Urdan and Schoenfelder (2006) defined Motivation as follows: Ã¢â¬Å"Motivation is a complex part of human psychology and behavior that influences how individuals choose to invest their time, how much energy they exert in any givenRead MoreMotivation And Theory Of Motivation1464 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesIt is suggested by psychologists that motivation can be understood as a technique that works as a model that starts and maintains behaviours. The reason we all act or do something is caused by motivation; it is related to the emotions, biology and the social factors that influence behaviour. It is usually a term used to explain why an individual will do something, the reasons behind that action. Moreover, The term motivation refers to factors that activate, direct, and sustain goal-directed behaviourRead MoreThe Theory Of Motivation And Motivation1401 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages Schools of thought in relation to motivation refer to the theories developed by different psychologists to explain motivation in dept. it is crucial to understand motivation and the factors that cause it since it contributes to achievement of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s goal and desires in life. Therefore, motivation can be described as the process of enticing an individual through a reward to increase the occurrence of a specified behavior in an organization. Different factors can be used as motivators in an organizationRead MoreThe Theory Of Motivation And Motivation1010 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesMotivation is defined as an act or process that inspires and stimulates a person to be an effort to achieve a goal. It not only puts employees in act, but also makes them feel interesting with their job. As a result, most of employees are feeling satisfaction with their job, becoming creativity, innovation and productivity as well. However, to successful in motivating the staff is required an appropriate met hod that meets with all staffÃ¢â¬â¢s need. Otherwise, it is seems to useless in driving the employeesRead MoreMotivation Theory And Expectancy Theory Of Motivation1742 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesplace. This problem mainly occurs in organisation when there is lack of motivation, lack of organisational justice, negative culture and low morale. The purpose of this case study is to give brief view about, why employees had to face these problems and how to make positive culture and what and where the changes are required for the WA force. This report introduces MARS motivation theory and Expectancy theory of motivation for improves officersÃ¢â¬â¢ behaviours towards force, with that how can they fillRead MoreMotivation Theories And Motivation Of Employee Motivation Essay1517 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagescontrol and some that are not. Employee motivation is something that can directly affect an organizations production. It is no secret that un-motivated employees equates to un-productive workers, but how can we combat this? In order to better understand this concept we will look at the definition of employee motivation, some of the motivation theories and some motivation techniques that could be useful in our organizations. What is employee motivation? Motivation is a word used quite often in many differentRead MoreMotivation Theories1236 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThe four motivation theories are Biological theory, Psychosocial theory of motivation, Biopsychosocial, and Achievement theory. Everyone has their own motivation in life for continuing education, and career choices. Each person also has Intrinsic and Extrinsic motivators. Intrinsic is an internal motivation for self satisfaction. Extrinsic is an external motivation, or reward for a personÃ¢â¬â¢s accomplishment. Motivation Theories: Linda was motivated to go back to school because she wanted an educationRead MoreMotivation Theories1577 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesÃ¢â¬Å"Motivation is the will and desire that a person has to engage in a particular behaviour or perform a particular taskÃ¢â¬ (Lawley King, P269). In life motivation will be needed to enhance the workforce in various ways, many organisations will use motivation to increase the percentage yield of an individual or to make an individual feel a part of the business or organisation. Incentives have a huge influence on behaviourist extrinsic approach. In addition other aspects; humanist theorist, intrinsic
Monday, May 18, 2020
The women in the novel, Great Expectations, are not given the ample opportunities that they would have liked in order to live out their lifelong dreams and hopes. Instead, they have some type of devastating impact that has been brought upon them through a situation that they themselves cannot help. This is evident in the lives of Mrs. Joe, a mere teenager who is forced to raise her brother in a time that is hard to support herself, and Miss Havisham, an elderly woman whoÃ¢â¬â¢s dreams were torn away when she was left at the altar. DickensÃ¢â¬â¢ female characters do not fit into the ideals of Victorian society as a wife and mother, which causes them to be destructive to themselves and/or men. Mrs. Joe, a character in the novel, GreatÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Mrs. JoeÃ¢â¬â¢s demanding ways on how her husband runs his shop is just another example that reflects how she runs their relationship as a couple. Although Mrs. Joe does portray this masculine life very exact, she al so takes care of the domestic things in their household; however, it becomes evident throughout the book that she does so not by choice. For example when preparing the evening meal she displays her hostility about making supper. Ã¢â¬Å"First, with her left hand she jammed the loaf hard and fast against her bib - where it sometimes got a pin into it, and sometimes a needle, which we afterwards got into our mouthsÃ¢â¬ (Dickens 7). Not only does Mrs. Joe show a sense of physical harm to the men in her life, but it becomes evident that she is hurting them mentally as well. Throughout PipÃ¢â¬â¢s life, he is faced with struggles to be better and improve himself as a person, as we know his great expectation throughout the book was to become a true gentleman. Although Pip is forced to deal with his sister treating him badly and making it seem as though he were nothing, Pip relives his injustices from his sister at Miss HavishamÃ¢â¬â¢s by explaining that Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦I had known , from the time when I could speak, that my sister, in her capricious and violent coercion, was unjust to me. I had cherished a profound conviction that her bringing me up by hand, gave her no right to bring me up by jerksÃ¢â¬ (Dickens 48). Showing just one way that Mrs. Joe demonstrates a type of built in hatredShow MoreRelatedObesity : Obesity Causes And Solutions1658 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesobesity should be viewed as a social issue rather than a medicalization issue. Though a large portion of the United States is considered overweight or obese, there are countless conflicting cultural messages and expectations involving obesity and thinness. Within the American culture, a great deal of value is placed on being thin and beautiful, and it is implied through the media that being physically attractive is associated with an overall higher quality of life. Boreo addressed how the media spreadsRead MoreEvaluating The Correlation Between The Oc And Performance Is Not A Modern Approach1738 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesInfluence on Performance Evaluating the correlation between the OC and performance is not a modern approach. In the last century, Burns Stalker (1961) pointed out that in their management research article - managers play a role in getting the employees commitment that leads to improved productivity. Expanding on that research Wei Lees, (2014) combines that leadership and types OC, would introduce values and objectives of the organization to employees and voice the importance to understand theRead MoreQueen Elizabeth As A Ruler For England1296 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesEngland was awaiting a possible invasion by the Spanish Armada, the state of EnglandÃ¢â¬â¢s defenses was poor and the outlook was grim. In spite of this, Elizabeth personally delivered an inspiring speech to the troops, and in the process took on a masculine role by doing so. Ã¢â¬Å"I myself will take up arms, I myself will be your general, judge, and rewarderÃ¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬Å"Speech to the Troops at TillburyÃ¢â¬ ). She tells her warriors that when they need her the most, she will physically be there and fight for them. Much unlikeRead More Response to the Injustice System in Toni Morrisons Sula Essay2686 Words Ã |Ã 11 PagesAmericans to vote (557). Finally, African Americans have a voice in their future. It only took a hundred years after the ending of slavery to have these critical rights. Despite all the mandated change, discrimination continues; and Malcolm X, a volatile leader who fought for African American rights, is assassinated. Promises coupled with death and dying. Nothing changing: everything changing. Hope dying, and the need is to mark the occasion with a cry of rage. Mirroring the difficult times, MorrisonsRead MoreMarketing Research And Sustainable Management Practice2285 Words Ã |Ã 10 PagesIn such a volatile and complex industry as tourism, marketing research, an integral part of marketing planning process, plays a crucial role in shaping a framework that guides Destination Management OrganisationsÃ¢â¬â¢ (DMOs) decisions, be it public or private. At operational level, market intelligence would help DMOs gain market insights, bridge the gap between tourism products and visitors and potentially explore new markets. Without market data, goal and objectives would be unrealistic thus resultingRead More Proctor Gamble Essay1856 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagessome are more unequal than others. ?Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Masculinity-Femininity This dimension tends to draw unwarranted criticism for its name alone. It basically refers expected gender roles in a culture. The cultures that scored towards what Hofstede referred to as ?masculine? tend to have very distinct expectations of male and female roles in society. The more ?feminine? cultures have a greater ambiguity in what is expected of each gender. ?Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Individualism-Collectivism Individualism on the one side versusRead MoreLiterature Review: Gender Discrimination6595 Words Ã |Ã 27 Pagesreview is to identify, discuss, and address gender discrimination in the workplace. Due to the broad spectrum of research regarding gender discrimination, this paper will primarily focus on women and pregnancy discrimination. This paper will attempt to uncover the obstacles and challenges experienced by women as they are subjected to the employment process and, if accepted for employment, what could await them within their workplace once they begin working. The statistical data collected and compiledRead MoreProctor Gamble1961 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pageswith some are more unequal than others. Ãâ¢ Masculinity-Femininity This dimension tends to draw unwarranted criticism for its name alone. It basically refers expected gender roles in a culture. The cultures that scored towards what Hofstede referred to as Ãâmasculine tend to have very distinct expectations of male and female roles in society. The more Ãâfeminine cultures have a greater ambiguity in what is expected of each gender. Ãâ¢ Individualism-Collectivism Individualism on the one side versus itsRead MoreBusiness Management: Methods to Develop and Enhance Communications Skills4434 Words Ã |Ã 18 Pagesreacting personally is compounded by a tendency to avoid stating and addressing conflict as it emerges. I often wait and avoid conflict until the problems become very large and unavoidable. This conflict-avoidance combined with emotional reactions is a volatile combination because when I can no longer avoid the conflict my comments come out very harsh. Thereby alienating my coworkers, and preventing me from being able to build healthy sustainable relationships. Although my field accounting is comprisedRead MoreLgbt And Indi Diversity2109 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pagesoften used interchangeably. Often they will be confused between one another when each word means something different entirely and with each words comes a new level of volatile beliefs. Stereotypes are widely held, but an oversimplified image or idea of a particular type of person or social group. They are the beliefs or expectations regarding what a certain social group is or should be like. Stereotypes also involve attributions. Stereotypes act as cognitive frameworks for organizing, interpreting
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Mothers Reclaiming our Children (ROC) is one of the organizations that deals with issues that involves criminal justice system. The organization began its operations in the year 1992 in Los Angeles County with the stakeholders being few mothers amongst other men being led by the president Barbara Meredith (Afary, 2009). There is evidence in the communities about the risks that individuals go through especially in the comparison between the blacks and the whites in the United States of America. The black men have their chances limited or adversely affected exclusively in relation to criminal activities. The racial differences tend to contribute the minorities receiving brutal treatment from the police officers. The children get to face longer and worse juvenile experiences as compared to the white kids. The police violence cases have gained popularity in the recent years with some of the community members terming the scenarios as post-racial experiences (Gilmore, 2004). Arguments have been established suggesting that the society lives or exists in two nations. One of the nations is perceived to consist of the blacks and the rest being the whites. The various views concerning the citizens in the US contributed to the members of the community initiating a program to assist in curbing injustices existing concerning the racial differences. The directive of this report is to identify the issues contributing to the increased racial segregation and police brutality in the society.Show MoreRelatedAnalysis Of The Movie Eyes Of The Sky 951 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesin protecting the youth in her area from corrupt Los Angeles police department officers. The love that Theresa has for her son is represented in many ways, one of which being her determination to fight against corruption. She is a single mother living in South Central Los Angeles who wants to see a change within her community after her nephew Tiny is killed in a drive-by constructed by undercover police. Her son Dwayne gives her the idea to create an organization to help fight against the
Stairs are one of the oldest structures in architectural history. They have always been an important part of a building or structure because without them you wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be able to get from the bottom to the top or vice versa. There is no actual answer of when the very first set of stairs was created. But there has been several sources say that the oldest surviving stairs are found in the ruins of Jericho. There are claims that these stairs are over 7,000 years old. This could mean that stairs were at the very birth of civilization itself. One of the first types of stairs used in history were not made on purpose but were just worn down when they were used as rocks to climb on or foot holes to get around easier. There was a time when chopped wood trunks constructed together to make levels, but these were not used in buildings, they were used to overcome the difficulties of the harsh terrain of the mountains and valleys. These were used as a survival tool the less time you had moving around in the harsh woods when you could use the tree trunks to get to a higher and safer place. At the start stairs ad started off as a survival tool, then moved onto having purpose for people to get from on area to another used a necessity in a building or structure, to being the core design feature of a building. They were made only for a purpose not for a design feature of a structure. The changes in stairs have varied over the years as to who designed them and the different trends ofShow MoreRelatedThe Birth of Civilization18947 Words Ã |Ã 76 Pagesthis village pattern. Ãâ¡atal HÃ ¼yÃ ¼k, in a fertile agricultural region of present-day Turkey, was a large town with astonishingly diversified agriculture, arts, and crafts. At an oasis near the Dead Sea, the town of Jericho was surrounded by a massive stone wall with at least one tower against the inner face. No other Neolithic settlement has been found with fortifications. These two sites show that the economies and settlement patterns of the Neolithic period may have been more complicated than
Police Culture in the United States Team B: Sean Milton, Shane Hunter, Joshua Nine, Tim Eichler, and Jason Fougere CJA/214 November 20, 2012 Bernard Fitchpatrick Needs to be 1,050-1400 words Police Culture in the United States Analyze police culture, including the significance of stress in policing The study in police culture started in 1960 and the 1970Ã¢â¬â¢s by the work of Cain and Banton in the United Kingdom and Skolnick and Westlesy in the United States. Even though the study work wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t specifically concerned with police culture but rather sociological analysis of police officer and police work, it provided a wealth of material through the observation and analysis that was then later used to help formulate the theories of police culture. The characteristics of police culture have tended to remain static since the early days when first police researching program started. We will write a custom essay sample on Police Culture or any similar topic only for you Order Now The literature on the police culture remained uncontenious for many years. Once the research started the results were rarely challenged and it is in only recent years that anyone has begun to see a body of work that is questioning these Ã¢â¬Ëcore assumptionsÃ¢â¬â¢ (Chan, 1997) about policing that has emanated from a culture analysis. It makes the police more then rather than less human than they have and reproduce their own culture. The police officer job is a very stressful job in many aspects, the occupational stressors as a cop rank most highly within the population were not specific to policing. The organization issues such as the demands of work impinging upon the life at home, lack of consultation and communication, the lack of control over workload, and the support and excess workload in general. The most recent study confirms previous findings of organization culture and workload as the key issues in officer stress. Given that the degree that symptomatology appears to be worsening, management action is required. Further research is indicated within the police population into a possible increased susceptibility in female officer proven by research. Analyze the culture for women and ethnic minorities in policing and how they can achieve equality in law enforcement Describe the internal and external mechanisms that control police discretion Conclusion * References * Grant, H. B. Terry, K. J. 2012. Law Enforcement in the 21st Century, 3rd ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ. Pearson/Prentice Hall. * Walker, S. Katz, C. M. 2011. The Police in America: An Introduction, 7th ed. New York, NY. McGraw-Hill. * University of Phoenix. (2011). CJ Interactive [Multimedia]. Retrieved from University of Phoenix, CJA214 website. * * * * How to cite Police Culture, Essay examples Police culture Free Essays Police Culture Number 8 powerpoint (Definition)The knowledge, attitudes, expectations, behaviours and rituals that exist amongst police, or which more broadly, characterize a police force. Police Culture affects: how police see themselves and their role as police how they see the world around them, how they police (how policing is performed). Differences exist within and between police cultures. We will write a custom essay sample on Police culture or any similar topic only for you Order Now Police officers, as individuals, will not all equally adopt or adhere to the dominant police culture. Police culture cannot be divorced from the social, political, economic, legal and organizational context of policing. Police cultures can change. Police Culture: Characteristics Sense of Mission: the thin blue lineÃ¢â¬â¢ A crucial, dangerous but thankless Job ,Not Just a Job, but a way of life0 Policing thought of as protecting the weak from the strong (not at all political, relating to power within society). o Ã¢â¬ËUs versus themÃ¢â¬â¢ mentality evident Law enforcers and law abiders versus law breakers Action Orientated: Ã¢â¬ËReal PolicingÃ¢â¬â¢ Emphasis on Ã¢â¬Ëreal policing as that which occurs in the public sphere and which involves dangerous or potentially dangerous situations and confrontations. ?(ie. responding to reports of rime, raids, shoot outs, car pursuits and so on). Greatest status attached to Homicide Squads and Tactical Response Units. Cynicism and Pragmatism Required to obey law, yet see law as limiting and naive Must go beyond the law, to do their Job and get results. Favour expedience over due process These characteristics of police culture have been related to various negative behaviours: Unlawful detentiono- The improper use of force0- Breaches of proper interview processes Ã¢â¬â Corruptiono- Dismissal of some crimes/victimso- Commission of some offences Isolation and Solidarity Feel different from other people based on work and work-related xperiences. Sense of isolation intensified by problems socializing with non-police due to others reactions, difficulties turning off, shift work. Closest bonds forged with other police Very loyal to, and protective of, other officers MasculinistDominance of masculinist perspectives and practices. Reiner has described police culture as an Ã¢â¬Ëold Ã¢â¬â Ofashioned world of machismoÃ¢â¬â¢. Ã¢â¬ËReal policingÃ¢â¬â¢ associated with confrontation, physical strength, danger Male-dominated composition of police forces has contributed to this. Racism Widely documented evidence of suspicion, hostility and rejudice in police dealings with racial and ethnic minorities. Evidenced in well- known instances (ie. Rodney King) through to everyday policing practices. Once again partly attributable to historical composition of police forces. Also relates to their role acting on behalf of states to administer racially- Obased laws and policies (segregation, removal of indigenous children). 7. Conservatismo Social and politically conservative. Emphasis upon maintaining the status quo. Once again, partly a consequence of historical composition and role of police Approaches to policing and the community Number 9 Traditional Policing- (as developed with rise of modern police forces). Community Policing (developed over past 30, largely in response to concerns raised over the methods and outcomes ot traditional policing. ) Traditional Policing: Police seen as separate from the community ,Role of the police is to respond to crime. ,Police effectiveness is measured by changes in crime rates and arrest rates. Concerned primarily with the policing of public sphere, rather than private sphere. Use of force is viewed as legitimate and necessary to Opreservation of order Ã¢â¬â militarization of police over past 40 y ears with rise of law and order. Community Policing The development of community policing was based upon recognition that a lack of familiarity and respect between police and specific communities sometimes resulted in negative and repressive policing practices being used, and the fostering of mutual suspicion and antagonism between police and communities. Young people? gays and lesbians, indigenous people, ethnic and racial minorities recognized as particularly affected. What is Community Policing? No universally accepted definition of community policing. As an approach to policing, it can best be described as onsisting of a broad range of strategies designed to improve policing by connecting police more closely to local communities and supporting relationships. Includes programs such as: 0 Neighbourhood Watch 0 Crime Stoppers00 Blue-light Discos School Education Programs Development of specific community policing units The appointment of Liaison Officers (such as: YLOs /0MLOs ) and committees involving police and community members . Formalised relationships with other community agencies0(for example, sexual assault and domestic violence services, ambulance services, welfare service). Reform of procedures for dealing with some types of ffences Ã¢â¬â SOCIT (Secual Offences and Child Abuse Investigation Teams Increased police presence, visibility and availability (for example, police on bicycles, shop fronts) Use of media to involve public in policing and crime prevention Police organising and hosting activities and programs Ã¢â¬â particularly for young people (such as the Ropes Program) Police learning and demonstrating the Ã¢â¬Ëart of negotiationÃ¢â¬â¢ with difficult groups Police taking a more gentle/balanced approach to policing Community Policing Compared to the traditional approach to policing, community policing Aims to be more pro-active and pre-emptive. More concerned with peacekeeping and conflict resolution than crime fighting0 Based on complexities of local context and on building relationships Envisages police as part of the community and as needing to be responsive and answerable to it. How to cite Police culture, Papers
Question: Discuss about the Communication and Information Technologies Annual. Answer: Introduction The present study focuses on the digital gap between the urban and sub- urban in Australia. The research framework based on the theoretical gaps and empirical gaps is outlined in this paper. Four main kinds of variables including -independent variable, dependent variable, moderating and mediating variable as the consistency factor on the relationship between independent and dependent variable are also illustrated in this study. The conceptual framework proposing hypothesized model is also discussed in this research study. These variables are further justified by using journals in the last section of the research study. Australia like several other developed countries is rapidly shifting towards highly digitalized society (Thomas et al., 2016). Despite several policy interventions by the Australian government, the sub-urban areas of this nation continue to be at digital disadvantage. There are several barriers that make it highly difficult for the enterprises as well as rural residents to participate in and attain benefit from increasing digital economy. On the contrary, the urban areas are developing at high rate owing to this digitization. This paper thereby presents evidences about the digital gap between the urban and sub-urban areas in Australia. In fact, mixed methods involving secondary and primary methods are adopted while conducting this research study. Research Framework based on the theoretical and empirical gap The digital gap signifies the gap between the people having accessibility to ICT (information and communication technologies) and those people who do not have. Although advancement in technologies has created huge opportunities to the people of the developing nations, gap still occurs between the people residing in sub-urban and urban areas (Thomas et al., 2016). As a result, this creates imbalance in the economys formation and the loss in the business. It has been stated by the OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation Development) that, digital gap is the division between the geographical areas, business and the individuals relating to accessibility of ICT and utilization of internet for huge range of activities (Sarkar, 2012). According to Ragnedda Muschert (2013), there are mainly four types of barriers to access ICT or digital facilities services, which involve- material access, use access, mental access and skill access. In addition to this, another barrier that occurs is th e lack of accessibility owing to shortage of services and equipments such as computer networking, computer hardware etc. Furthermore, skill accessibility concerns with deficiency of the digital skills due to lack of training, education and so on. Another digital barrier that occurs mainly describes lack of few opportunities which undermines utilization of facility. It has been suggested by Imperial Oliver (2012) that, digital gap not only involves technological issues such as capacity, usability, high ICT cost but also is related to socio- economic issues. All these issues including non- technical as well as technical have direct impact on the ICT literacy level, which in turn consequently increases the digital gap. Recent evidences on digital gap in Australia signifies that despite significant rise in utilization level of internet, gap results from these factors involving lack of education, affordability, accessibility, age, digital ability etc (Alam Salahuddin, 2015). Some facts also reflects that even though there has been rise in usage of computer and access of internet across the rural and urban areas, digital gap within these two areas has been increasing. In fact, some researchers identifies that affordability is one of the main barriers to utilization of internet. Affordability involves two components such as Value and relative expenditure. The gap between digitally excluded and included Australians have been widening over the years. van Deursen Helsper (2015) opines that the people residing in this nation with low income level, less education and employment are less digitally involved. Moreover, there are still digital gap between the richer and poorer people residing in this nation. It has been argued by Buckingham Willett (2013) that, age is another division that is related with the digital gap. Recent facts reflect that teenagers are keener to adopt innovations and hence accepted ICT more as compared to older generations. Even in Australia, the internet users are majorly the younger generations residing in urban areas as compared to sub-urban areas. Additionally, accessibility also contributes to digital gap between the sub-urban and urban areas (Thomas et al., 2016). Accessibility mainly consists of three components including internet access, internet data allowance and internet technology. It has been found out by Vrallyai Herdon, (2013) that, few indigenous communities residing in sub-urban areas of Australia still do not have accessibility to Internet at their residence. However, Australia government has taken few measures for improving accessibility of ICT in sub-urban areas. Digital ability is also another factor that contributes to digital gap between the sub-urban and urban areas in Australia. Digital ability includes three components such as- basic kills, activities and attitudes of people. As digital ability in sub-urban areas is lower than that of urban areas of this nation, the government of Australia has adopted several measures in order to bridge this gap. The TAM (Technology Acceptance Model) developed by David is an appropriate theoretical model that predicts acceptance as well as use of ICT (Davis, 1985). It is regarded as one of the most influential model that explains ICT implementation and utilization behavior. These theories basically emphasize behavioral attitudes, individuals rational behavior and actual use. TAM is mainly used in this study for illustrating accessibility, digital ability, internet use, affordability, internet literacy etc. Moreover, this theory helps to conduct the research about the digital gap between the urban and sub-urban areas of Australia. This section reflects the facts of the research study based on empirical evidences. The ADII ( Australian Digital Inclusion Index) measures the extent of digital inclusion or the gap between these two areas of this nation. The score of ADII and the data produced by the ABS ( Australian Bureau of Statistics) reflects that the digital gap between sub-urban and urban areas of this country has been reducing over the last few years. However, the increase in ADII score over the time has been mainly driven by huge improvement in digital ability and accessibility (Thomas et al., 2016). On the contrary, the decrease in affordability score reflects that this aspect has not improved over the years. All the three components of accessibility have improved constantly. Internet accessibility in rural areas increased from 82.7 in the year 2014 to 85.3 in the year 2017. Moreover, the scores of both internet technology as well as data allowance also improved in this area over the last four years. Inte rnet data allowance increased from 41.6 in 2014- 51.2 in 2017 while technology score increased from 62.3 in 2014- 72.1 in 2017 (Thomas et al., 2016). The internet accessibility score in urban areas reflects steady rate during these years. Likewise, components of the digital ability also improved in both sub-urban and urban areas of this nation over time (Jaeger et al., 2012). The score of basic skill component increased from 47.2 to 53.3 while activities score increased from 34.2 to 38.4 during these years. Despite these components enhanced over the years, the improvement rate has slowed down. On the other hand, the decrease in affordability component signifies increasing cost of internet services. Additionally, the expenditure value component increased constantly over the last four years. As a result, the peoples expense on this also increases at high rate. Few recent facts reflect that the people living in sub-urban areas of this country spend less on internet services. Owing to r ise in cost of internet services, these people could not afford to purchase this service. However, the Australian government implemented measures of reducing this internet service cost, which in turn increased the spending of the people residing in sub-urban areas. Henceforth, the digital gap decreased slightly over these years (Allington McGill-Franzen, 2012). As stated above that gender also contributes to digital gap, it has been seen that females in this nation use less internet as compared to males. The data given by ABS also supports this fact that near about 53% of the males utilize internet in comparison with 47% of females. Other factors that the researcher identifies contributes to this digital gap involves income, location, education, culture, age etc (DiMaggio Hargittai, 2001). As suggested by Allington McGill-Franzen (2012), the education as well as income level is the vital determinants of the society accessibility to internet. In fact, the data provided by the ABS signifies that the household in this nation that are less likely to connect with internet have some special features involving low income of households, children under the age of 15 years and being situated in remote sub-urban areas. Variable is anything which takes varying values and might differ at different times for same person or object. In this study, four vital variables are illustrated, which includes- independent, dependent, moderating and mediating. Independent variables refer to the variable that affects the dependent variable either positively or negatively. Therefore, for per unit rise in independent variable, there is either increase or decrease in dependent variable. In this study, the independent variables are affordability, accessibility, gender, age, digital disability, income, education and so on. Dependent variable is considered to be as the major variable, which lends itself to make investigation as viable factor. Independent variables are mainly based on the dependent variable. In this study, the dependent variable is the ICT at which the independent variables are based. A moderating variable is the variable that has strong impact on the relationship between the dependent and independent variable. The existence of this variable basically modifies the relation between the dependent and independent variable. In this case, the moderating variable is the influence of the independent variables including- affordability, accessibility, digital ability, income, education, gender, age etc on the ICT, which is taken as dependent variable. Mediating variables are the one that occurs between the time independent variables begins operating to impact dependent variables and that time its impact is felt. This variable occurs as function of independent variables that operates in any circumstances and facilitates to conceptualize as well as explain influence of independent variable on dependent variable. In this study, it has been highlighted that accessibility to ICT is the mediating variable that leads to digital gap. The hypothesis has been proposed in order to test the validity of the research study that aligns with digital gap between sub-urban and urban areas in Australia. The hypotheses that are proposed for this study are given below: Justifying the above mentioned variable of the research study It has been opined by Beena Mathur (2012) that, social as well as economic factors including income, education and age are more closely linked with accessibility and utilization of ICT as compared to other factors. Imperial Oliver (2012) suggests that the teenagers and students have the potentiality to bridge this digital gap. Some researchers have found out that the students in the sub-urban areas of this nation are not furnished enough with the basic ICT skills. However, their ICT capabilities are basically low as compared to the students of urban areas. According to Fraillon, Schulz Ainley (2013), ICT skills are vital prerequisites for the information literacy and learning. Macdonald Clayton (2013) opines that education also widens the digital gap between the urban and sub-urban areas. Recent evidences reflects that the total number of people living in urban areas receive proper education with internet access as compared to people living in rural areas. It has been stated by W illis Tranter (2006) that, the existence of digital gap owing to age is also apparent in sub-urban areas as compared to urban areas. Relatively the younger generations in sub urban areas are found to use internet more than that of older generations. Recent study highlights that in few sub-urban areas of this nation, accessibility of internet services increased and digital ability also improved. At the same time, it has been found out that affordability remains vital problem in these areas of this nation. The Australian government has taken few measures in order to bridge the gap between the urban and sub-urban areas. The policymakers have introduced education programs on ICT in the sub-urban areas in order to reduce this gap (Lopez, Gonzalez-Barrera Patten, 2013). Buckingham Willett (2013) found out that rapid development of information society has basically innovated new imperatives for the policymakers for bridging the digital gap. However, it can be predicted that the digital gap between these two areas will reduce in future. Conclusion The above research framework reflects that while utilization of internet has been increasing significantly, digital gap persists between urban and sub-urban areas of this nation. It has been evident from the empirical evidences that the digital gap has been decreasing between these two areas despite ICTs affordability of people decline over the last few years. However, it will be difficult for the policymakers to reduce the digital gap between urban and sub-urban areas if the problems such as ICTs affordability, literacy and people income remain unresolved. Furthermore, increasing ICT cost to rural users due to low power of earning and deficiency of training resources widens the digital gap. However, it is necessary for the Australian government to provide more support in order to reduce the gap. References Alam, K., Salahuddin, M. (2015). Assessing digital divide and its determinants: a case study of households perception in the Western Downs region of Queensland. Allington, R. L., McGill-Franzen, A. (Eds.). (2012).Summer reading: Closing the rich/poor reading achievement gap. Teachers College Press. Beena, M., Mathur, M. (2012). Role of ict education for women empowerment.International Journal of Economics and Research,3(3), 164-172. Broadbent, R., Papadopoulos, T. (2013). Bridging the digital dividean Australian story.Behaviour Information Technology,32(1), 4-13. Buckingham, D., Willett, R. (Eds.). (2013).Digital generations: Children, young people, and the new media. Routledge. Davis, F. D. (1985).A technology acceptance model for empirically testing new end-user information systems: Theory and results(Doctoral dissertation, Massachusetts Institute of Technology). 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Sunday, April 26, 2020
A paper on the life history of Lyndon Baines Johnson. In this research paper on LBJ, the author tries to show how LBJs early life in public office would eventually affect his decisions as Senate Majority leader, Vice President, and President. The author shows that many of the policies set in place by Johnson proved to be groundbreaking legislation, but that his involvement in Vietnam would, in the end, be his downfall. Lyndon Baines Johnson was the embodiment of American ideals. He served his country as a representative, a senator, a vice-president, and then, finally, as President of the United States. President Johnson was able to accomplish great things during his years in Washington, and as one expert stated, the American political system, under the leadership of a man who knew what made it tick, was able to work efficiently and productively to an extent not seen since and not often before. We will write a custom essay sample on Lyndon Baines Johnson or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page 1 Through all of his years as a public servant, LBJ never lost sight of the American people and their problems. He sought to make life better for the working class citizen through each bill he signed and each program that he founded.